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Allergic Diseases of Immune System


Allergy vs Immunity

Allergy Immunity Urticaria Bronchial asthma symptoms treatment Natural medicines buy folk medicine store. Anaphylactic shock Atopic dermatitis Allergic rhinitis Allergic conjunctivitis Food Allergy Pollinosis treatment at home by health extracts.

Allergy is a General concept.

Currently, there is no single classification of allergic diseases, since they have a variety of clinical manifestations and complex mechanisms for the development of the allergic process.

In many allergic diseases that most often have to be diagnosed and treated by practitioners, it is possible to simultaneously detect symptoms of various types of allergies, but it is always important to establish the main, leading mechanism for justified therapy.

Allergy is a hyperimmune (increased) reaction of human body to allergens - substances of a genetically alien nature that do not have disease-causing properties and are safe for humans.

Allergic diseases are a group of diseases that are based on allergic inflammation.

allergia_vs_immunitetAllergies are understood as the acquired ability of human body to respond specifically to various foreign allergens that enter the body from the external environment, or to its own altered substances and cells.

Against the background of seemingly complete health, harmless pollen of plants, food products, microflora of premises, widely used medicines and familiar cosmetics suddenly turn into"aggressive factors".

This occurs as a result of a violation of the previously normally functioning immune system when the body is exposed to adverse environmental factors and the development of so-called secondary immunodeficiency States, characterized not only by a decrease in quantitative indicators, but also by a violation of its functional activity.

The basis of allergic reactions is the failure of the identification systems of immunocompetent cells that distinguish pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and toxins from safe particles and molecules that enter human body.

Allergic reactions can occur not only to plant pollen and household allergens, but also to medications, insect bites, as well as parasitic infections and even to their own natural microflora that lives in the body of each person.
A striking example of this is infectious-allergic bronchial asthma and some types of urticaria.

Previously, it was believed that allergies are most often caused by protein substances of natural origin. Modern research shows that it is possible to form specific antibodies against artificially synthesized molecules, which catastrophically expands the range of both household allergens and food products containing artificial dyes and preservatives in the form of various additives.

Clinically, allergic reactions are manifested by lesions of the skin, mucous membranes of the eyes, respiratory organs and gastrointestinal tract, often accompanied by painful itching, edema of vital organs, and attacks of suffocation.

Allergic reactions with the development of anaphylactic shock are a serious threat to human life.

The simplest and most rational way to treat allergies is identify and remove from the patient's environment specific factors that provoke the development of the allergic process.


Classification of allergic diseases.

Classification of allergic diseases is based primarily on the manifestation of symptoms on the part of" shock organs", taking into account the main causes and a set of sequential processes that determine the mechanisms of occurrence and course of allergic reactions.

This classification includes the following forms of allergic diseases:

Food allergy is considered not as an independent nosological form, but as a causally significant factor in the development of allergic diseases.

bronhialnaya_astmaBronchial asthma. The first place in the structure of allergic diseases, which affects about 6% of the world's population. This is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract, characterized by reversible bronchial obstruction-narrowing of the bronchi, which causes paroxysmal violations of their patency.
It is customary to distinguish between atopic-allergic, infectious-allergic and mixed forms of bronchial asthma.

Allergic rhinitis. This is a chronic inflammatory disease of the nasal mucosa caused by hypersensitivity to inhaled allergens and manifested by nasal congestion, rhinorrhea (abundant mucous discharge), itching of the mucosa, repeated sneezing.
These symptoms are reversible and stop after eliminating contact with causally significant allergens or under the influence of treatment.

Allergic rhinitis can be seasonal and year-round. According to the mechanism of development, it belongs to the immediate type of allergic reactions.

Allergic conjunctivitis. The most common form of allergic eye diseases caused by hypersensitivity to inhaled allergens. When allergic conjunctivitis is characterized by bilateral eye damage, and the unilateral process is possible only in direct contact with a causally significant allergen, for example, if the patient came into contact with an animal, and then rubbed the eye.

By analogy with the classification of allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis is divided into:

  • seasonal and year-round;

  • acute and chronic.

The main clinical manifestations of allergic conjunctivitis include:

  • itch;

  • redness;

  • conjunctival edema;

  • lacrimation;

  • photophobia.

Allergic conjunctivitis is usually combined with allergic rhinitis and other allergic diseases.

allergicheskiy_rinitHay fever (from the latin. Pollen - blooming). A group of allergic diseases caused by plant pollen. The prevalence of pollinosis in various regions, depending on climate and environmental factors, ranges from 2-30 %.

The disease has a clearly recurring seasonality that coincides with the flowering period of certain plants (ambrosia, Timothy, fescue, bluegrass, sagebrush, Cygnus, poplar, birch, alder, hazel, Linden, bagulnik and others).

Clinical manifestations of pollinosis are very similar to acute respiratory viral infection: inflammation and swelling of the nasopharyngeal and eye mucosa, accompanied by itching, burning, copious mucous secretions, sneezing attacks, dry coughing, headaches.

In recent years, pollinosis is increasingly complicated by cross-food allergies, which occur when eating fresh fruits, vegetables, herbs, and spices.

Insect allergy. These are allergic reactions that occur in contact with insects.

Allergy at hymenopteran venom. The peculiarity of Allergy to the venom of hymenopteran insects is that both sensitizing and allowing the entry of allergens into the human body occurs parenterally (similar to injection), and the rapid development and severity of the allergic reaction can lead to death.

Allergic at blood-sucking venom. Reactions to blood-sucking bites, as well as reactions to stinging, are toxic, pseudoallergic and allergic. Most often, allergic reactions to bites are manifested by local symptoms.

Inhalation or contact insect allergy. Allergies to inhalation and contact allergens of insects most often occur in I (IgE-dependent) and IV (delayed) types of hypersensitivity. The resulting reactions may be local or General.

Atopic dermatitis. It is often combined with other manifestations of allergies – bronchial asthma, food allergies, allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis.

Most often, atopic dermatitis debuts in early childhood, and then worries the patient throughout his life, either with a continuous acute course, or with constant exacerbations.

The development of atopic dermatitis largely depends on the hereditary predisposition.

It was found that if both parents suffered from allergic diseases, the probability of atopic dermatitis in their child is about 80%. Approximately 55% chance of developing this form of skin Allergy in children, if only one of the parents is allergic.

allergicheskiy_dermatitAllergic contact dermatitis (ACD). This is an allergic disease that affects the skin, which occurs when exposed most often to industrial allergens that provoke a specific delayed allergic reaction (type IV), which manifests itself 12-48 hours after repeated contact with allergens.

Cosmetic and medicinal products, latex, rubber, and metal ions are common triggers of allergic contact dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis affects 10-15% of people around the world.

Not to be confused with allergic contact dermatitis is simply contact dermatitis.

Contact dermatitis can occur in any person when the skin is exposed to a mechanical, chemical or thermal stimulus. Allergic contact dermatitis has a completely different mechanism of development.

For the occurrence of allergic contact dermatitis, preliminary sensitization is necessary – this is the formation of increased sensitivity to a chemical substance, followed by a phase of induction – an increase in the activity of enzymes when exposed to chemicals, in particular drugs.

Urticaria. It includes a group of diseases caused by various causes that lead to the appearance of a kind of rash on the skin, similar to a nettle burn, usually accompanied by a strong itching and burning sensation.

The mechanisms of allergic urticaria are based on increased vascular permeability of the microcirculatory bed and acute development of edema of the surrounding tissue under the influence of mediators (biologically active substances) released from mast cells and basophils.

The main place in the development of allergic urticaria is occupied by allergic reactions of the first type, caused by the production of IgE-antibodies.

However, urticaria can also develop on the second type of immune damage, due to the formation of immune complexes, for example, when blood is transfused or when penicillin and antitoxic serums are administered.

There are several forms of urticaria:

  • Immunologically determined.

  • Anaphylactoid.

  • Physical.

  • Hereditary.

  • Other type.

Anaphylactic shock. An acute systemic allergic reaction of an immediate type that develops as a result of the introduction of an allergen into the body against the background of previous sensitization to it. It is characterized by a rapidly developing peripheral vascular collapse that threatens the patient's life.

Anaphylactic shock can develop when medications are introduced into human body: antibiotics, antitoxic serums, sulfonamides, analgesics, vitamins, hormones, and other medications.

Dangerous allergic reactions in the form of anaphylactic shock can occur when eating certain foods, when biting or stinging insects.

allergia_lechebnayaSerum sickness. An allergic disease that develops in response to the introduction of foreign blood serum or drugs prepared on its basis into the body. Foreign serums and certain pharmaceuticals containing animal and plant proteins can be perceived by the immune system as antigens, resulting in an allergic reaction, that is, an excessive immune response, under conditions of increased sensitivity.

Drug allergy. This is an acute toxic-allergic reaction to drugs, which is based on specific immunological mechanisms, which distinguishes drug allergies from other side effects of drugs: overdose, the formation of toxic metabolites-metabolic products, etc.

Drug intolerance may occur as a result of idiosyncrasy.

Food allergy. An independent form of the disease is not included in the modern classification of allergic diseases. However, allergic reactions associated with food intake are one of the provoking factors of various allergic diseases, such as urticaria, atopic dermatitis, cross-food Allergy in pollinosis.
The variety of allergic diseases and factors that cause them makes allergodiagnostics complex and multi-stage.


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