The purpose of bodybuilding - increasing muscle mass while decreasing the subcutaneous fat layer.
Sports nutrition is a specific group of dietary supplements, produced mainly for people leading an active and healthy lifestyle, involved in sports and fitness.
First of all, the reception of sports nutrition is aimed at supplementing the diet with all the necessary micro and macro elements that a person lacks from natural foods, increasing strength and endurance, to improve sports results, normalize metabolism, strengthen health, increase muscle volume, achieve optimal body weight and in General to increase the quality and life expectancy.
Sports nutrition belongs to the category of additives, since its proper use is an addition to the main diet consisting of conventional products, and not their complete replacement.
Amino acids are the structural elements of protein and the building blocks of muscle. In addition, they play an important role in various physiological processes related to energy synthesis, recovery, brain function, muscle mass gain, increased strength and fat burning.
There are 23 amino acids, 9 of which are considered essential, i.e. they are not produced by the body and must be obtained from food.
Eating protein foods such as lean meat and low-fat dairy products, protein shakes are the most common ways to obtain amino acids. These substances are also found in vegetables and nuts.
Amino acid supplements (sportpit) - also a convenient option to meet the needs of the body. The reason we use sports nutrition is the high bioavailability of amino acids.
Bioavailability is a measure of the effectiveness of amino acid absorption and use for the body's needs.
There are several factors that affect it:
fat content of the protein source and the time it takes for amino acids to become available for use in the body;
preparation process: some amino acids are sensitive to heat treatment and are destroyed, some - not very;
form of food (solid, liquid) and sports supplements (powder or tablets);
degree of chemical cleavage of amino acid sources in sports nutrition;
presence of the auxiliary and the binder component;
condition of the gastrointestinal tract, diseases affecting digestion;
genetics, age and general health.
Exercise, hormones and nutrients to induce muscle growth. Contribute to this amino acid additives with a high content (leucine, isoleucine, and valine).
The best time to consume amino acids is immediately after training, when the muscles absorb nutrients through increased blood flow, which is caused by exercise.
In addition, to optimize recovery and muscle growth, after the training you need to eat food consisting of protein, "fast" and "slow" carbohydrates. This time period is ideal for fast-digesting protein, such as whey.
The popularity of amino acid supplements has recently increased dramatically. In sports nutrition stores you can buy training and recovery drinks containing hydrolyzed (pre-split) proteins and often some free amino acids.
In addition, many athletes use amino acid supplements in powdered or encapsulated form. The advantage of these products is that the body does not need to digest them as usual food.
The phrase "free form" means that amino acids are not chemically bound to other molecules. Therefore, they pass through the stomach into the small intestine for a short time and are very quickly absorbed into the bloodstream.
After absorption, amino acids are processed in the liver. This organ can not process many nutrients at a time, so the optimal dosage is 3-4 g of amino acids. They quickly assimilate without overloading the liver, and get into the tissues that need them, for example, in the muscles that recover after training.
There are many misconceptions about muscle contraction and the use of energy substrates in training. During the strength training, much of the energy comes from non-carbohydrate sources.
When muscles contract, within the first few seconds they use the reserves of adenosine triphosphate (ATP – a substance vital for the energy processes of all cells in the body).
The compound used to replenish these stocks immediately is creatine phosphate. That is why creatine supplements are very popular among bodybuilders and power athletes.
To maintain a high level of creatine phosphate and ATP in the bloodstream should be a sufficient number of amino acids. The latter can be obtained from food, but they enter the bloodstream for a long time (due to the digestion process), besides the food may contain carbohydrates or fats, which are not always desirable.
Thus, the use of free forms of amino acids, both alone and in combination with creatine supplements, can increase energy and performance during training.
Weight loss (fat burning) starts under two conditions:
increase the mobilization and circulation of stored fats in the body;
fats should be transported and converted into energy in mitochondria ("power plants" of cells).
Some nutrients help the body convert fat into energy.
For example, methionine improves the transport and metabolism of fat. During a diet with reduced calories amino acid supplements (including glutamine) help to reduce the amount of food consumed, as well as to provide support to the muscles, liver and immune system, which is very important for optimization of body composition.
Our body has the ability to break down muscle tissue for use as a source of energy during heavy exercise. This is part of a physiological process called gluconeogenesis, which means producing glucose from non-carbohydrate sources.
The element of this reaction, which is important for athletes, is known as the alanine–glucose cycle. During the cycle amino acid intake are separated from muscle tissue, their elements are converted into the amino acid alanine, which is then transferred to the liver and transformed into glucose.
If we consume extra Amino Acid, the body doesn't need to break down muscle tissue to get extra energy.
Scientists have found that eating Amino Acid during and after exercise can lead to a significant reduction in muscle destruction during exercise. Catabolism causes a decrease in muscle volume, can cause pain and even lead to injury.
Strength training stimulates both the synthesis and destruction of protein in muscle fibers subjected to stress. Hypertrophy (muscle growth) occurs when protein synthesis prevails over its destruction.
Normal hormonal level (such as insulin and growth hormone levels) during the post-workout period stimulate anabolic processes in muscle fibers, inhibiting the degradation of muscle protein.
Eating foods that increase the transport of amino acids to muscles increases energy availability and anabolic hormone levels.
This leads to the acceleration of anabolic processes and/or the suppression of catabolic. As a result, a positive balance of protein is created, muscles and strength indicators begin to grow.
Natural natural foods are the best and most effective source of essential amino acids for the human body to gain muscle mass.
Sunflower seeds. First, seeds are a great source of protein. Secondly, they are full of vitamin E, an important element of nutrition for muscle mass. This antioxidant reduces the effects of free radicals on muscles and accelerates their recovery after exercise. So Lushai or add shelled in a salad. Fried or raw - to taste.
Mackerel. Fish especially rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Immediately after training, the body begins to feverishly break down all the protein that comes to hand, including your skinny muscles. And while you get home, while you eat your steak, while the stomach digests it - all this time the body will systematically eat itself.
Omega-3 inhibit this process, slowing it down until the desired protein gets into the body from the outside. Even if you ate a mackerel sandwich for Breakfast, long before training - all will be well One thing contains 74 mg of vitamin C, almost a daily dose.
This vitamin is an essential component of collagen, a substance necessary for muscles and ligaments for a healthy and happy life.
Kiwi. Essential nutrition for muscles.
Pineapple. It is full of the enzyme bromelain, improves digestion of protein foods. After training, you ate your steak - eat it with a jar of canned pineapples, and the process of flowing someone else's protein into your muscles will go faster. In addition, bromelain reduces muscle pain after exercise.
Venison. The meat of horned forest friends is full of protein and vitamin B12, which contributes to the digestion of this protein. Therefore, for a set of muscle mass it fits perfectly. Before cooking, do not forget to carefully discourage and not less carefully marinate in red wine with juniper berries (look for them in pharmacies or in the spice departments of large supermarkets). For a day, if not longer - otherwise the meat will be tough.
Coffee. Caffeine can increase workout duration by reducing muscle pain. That is, you will later feel tired and will lie longer under the bar or run along the track. The alternative would be green tea, but be careful with energy drinks.
Beef. Champion in essential amino acid content for all types of meat. It also has quite a lot of creatine, a substance that - according to canadian scientists - increases muscle mass, while reducing fat, and increases endurance.
Ginger. This spice - one of the strongest natural painkillers (in terms of muscle pain), says the British "Bulletin of medicinal products." Works better than aspirin, and health is clearly useful.Lactic acid bacteria are an excellent digestive stimulant. Which should be fine, otherwise your body won't be able to absorb high doses of protein.
Natural yogurt. Rumors about the fact that fruit yogurt instead of strawberry-BlackBerry put a special edible plastic, we do not believe, but nevertheless recommend to buy yogurt without sugar and mix it with fruit, if you want. No sugar. By the way, bifidobacteria are more useful than you think - they can relieve you of depression.
Turmeric. Curcumin (a substance found in this spice) promotes the formation and growth of new cells, which helps muscles recover from the inevitable during training microtrauma. Other classic components of curry - like chicken and red pepper - also not a hindrance to the athlete.
Cucumber. Irresponsible people clean the cucumber from the rind before eating. And don't do it yourself, and take his cucumber peel from the neighbor on the table. Remember: it is in the skin of this vegetable are substances that are part of the connective tissues of your body.
Chocolate milk. First, you can't build decent muscles without strong bones that need calcium. Secondly, whole milk (3,5% fat, skim let them drink languid slimming girls) - an excellent remedy for muscle pain. And about the benefits of chocolate, we've told you a hundred times.
Buckwheat. Carbohydrates in buckwheat less than in other cereals, but a lot of amino acids for muscle growth. Plus substances that strengthen the circulatory system. At the jocks it works in a very busy mode, so at least a couple of times a week pamper yourself with buckwheat porridge.
Almond. Almonds contain the most easily digestible form of vitamin E. As we said before, it helps muscles recover faster after training. Eat no more, but at least two handfuls a day. In addition, nuts can cheer you up and keep your heart healthy.
Cherry juice. Cherry is one of the best natural analgesics. That is why we recommend to drink the juice of this berry is not only post-workout salad of all the ingredients listed earlier, but also another unexpected hangover.
Paste. When you really want sweet - do not deny yourself. Without cakes with butter cream you will do fine, snack tea with a couple of sticks of fresh pastille (but not Caucasian, from the rubbed cherry plum, and Northern, from Apple puree, egg white and sugar). Among desserts, this is one of the best. Minimum calories, minimum fat and a decent amount of protein.
Cress salad. Salad literally Packed with vitamin C and iron - an element necessary for muscle growth. Mix the cress salad with other herbs (such as ordinary and Chinese salad and cilantro) sprinkle with butter, vinegar and lemon juice and with an appetite umni, eating whole-grain toast with tuna.
Sesame halva. Sesame is rich in zinc, which plays an important role in cell tissue growth and protein synthesis. Now there is something to eat a pre-workout cup of coffee.
Eggs. The eggs are full of the protein you need - but that's not news. In addition to protein, they are rich in vitamin D, essential for the health of muscle ligaments. Don't overdo it - doctors don't recommend eating more than 10 eggs a week.
Tuna. Tuna is pure, one hundred percent protein without any extra additives.
Papaya. Tropical fruit contains a substance with a simple name "papain", which contributes to the breakdown of dietary proteins.
Sweet pepper. For vitamin With the Bulgarian pods handicap the lemon and blackcurrant. As we have already said, it is impossible to increase muscle mass without this antioxidant. The redder the pepper, the more vitamin it contains.
Herring. The fish hiding under the fur coat is the champion in creatine content, an extremely useful substance - up to 1% of the total weight. Remember, that zapivanie this dainties vodka to tolerable outcomes in physical culture, sport and strengthening defense capacity the Motherland not leads.
Lentil. The protein content (26%) of lentils among plants is second only to soy and hemp. It enough we already mentioned iron and zinc, which occupies an important place in the power systems of athletes.
Paste. Pasta with chicken is one of the favorite dishes of our fitness editor Dmitry Smirnov. And not for nothing - look at his biceps. Pasta - one of the best sources so you need post-workout carbs. They replenish energy reserves. Of course, pasta with a sauce of lean meat and vegetables is a good food, and with cream, bacon and butter - bad.
Asparagus. Asparagus is one of the Champions in protein content among vegetables (up to 5% in fresh fruits). Yet it is full of potassium (for normal functioning of the circulatory system), zinc (for muscle growth) and fiber (for digestion).
Sprouted wheat. Excellent source of chromium and is essential for cells to better absorption of glucose - the main energy source. In addition, the sprouted wheat is full of arginine - an amino acid that provides the best blood flow to the muscles.
Spirulina. This green algae is 65% protein. It's full of beta-carotene, providing muscle recovery after exercise. Pitching is advised to add spirulina to a protein shake, doctors advise to first consult with them - after all, this is a therapeutic supplement, there is it just not worth it.
Mineral water without gas. Muscles 80% consist of water, so without it, as you know, can not do. Constantly, but gradually drink during all training - you lose a lot of water, breathing and sweating, and even the slightest lack of moisture can strongly spoil your sports results, having prevented an organism to function normally, and muscles - to grow.
Turkey. Minimum fat, up to 50% protein from the total weight of the carcass plus the same amount of phosphorus as in fish. Just remember, when cooking Turkey manages to dry almost instantly - be careful and do not forget about the sauce.
High prevalence of caloric intake over the intensity of stress leads to an increase in body fat. To power consumption turned into muscles needed stimulus for muscle building and construction material.
Muscles themselves do not grow. The impetus for growth is high-intensity exercise (about steroids separate conversation).
The required amount of calories when bodybuilding is better to rely on energy costs, since this quantity varies in a very large range. First determine the baseline energy consumption (at rest, taking into account gender, age, weight, external conditions), then tsodschityvaetsya average daily energy expenditure during physical exertion.
To do this, use the table of energy consumption for various sports. When classes at the gym the average cost of energy is about 600 calories per hour (for a man weighing 70 kg). Need to calculate the total load of a typical one week and divide it into seven days.
So you can get close to the true understanding of their energy costs. Many young athletes tend to overestimate this value.