Immunity Innate Acquired T-lymphocytes B-lymphocytes Factors of Influence Microflora Properties Behavior Effect on the Protective functions of the Body Drugs to strengthen Immunity Properties Recommendations Application buy a store of folk medicine. Maintaining Immunity at home by health extracts.
Immunity is the natural defense of human body. Currently, the General system of immunity is divided into two divisions:
Innate (non-specific) immunity.
Non-specific (innate, natural) immunity is a system of protective factors of the body. It is inherited. Innate immunity is usually caused by constantly present protective factors in the body.
They are most active in the first 4-6 hours after the introduction of the microbe into the body, then participating in the development of acquired (specific) immunity.
Innate immunity and acquired immunity later work synchronously, strengthening each other. Conditionally, factors of innate immunity can be divided into:
Also, the normal microflora of the mucous membranes is isolated separately.
Skin-performs a barrier function, preventing the penetration of bacteria, viruses, foreign particles, and ultraviolet radiation into the body. The sweat and sebaceous glands of the skin secrete a secret containing antimicrobial substances that inhibit the colonization and reproduction of bacteria.
The mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, genitourinary system, gastrointestinal tract, inner surface of the eyelids and auditory passages that communicate with the external environment have a scintillating epithelium, which removes bacteria that have settled on the mucous membrane.
Mucosal cells secrete mucus and antimicrobial substances: lysozyme and hydrochloric acid. The anatomical factors of non-specific immunity also include the secrets of mucus, lacrimal and salivary glands, urine, sputum and other body fluids.
These factors include:
acidity of body fluids;
Physiological factors perform the following functions:
elimination of bacteria from the body;
elimination (removal) of pathogenic agents;
suppression of microbial colonization.
Normal microflora of the mucous membranes.
The microflora of the mucous membrane includes bifidumbacteria, lactobacilli, Escherichia and other microorganisms.
They stimulate immune system and suppress the reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms through direct competition and the production of specific antibiotics – for example, Escherichia coli produce colicins, which destroy these same bacteria and some related Escherichia species.
Cellular factors include phagocytes:
Mononuclear phagocytes (blood monocytes, tissue macrophages);
Granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils);
Tissue basophils are mast cells.
Phagocytes carry out the absorption, destruction and elimination of foreign cells from the body – phagocytosis. Also, cellular factors have a secretory function-they synthesize enzymes, complement components, enzyme inhibitors, reactogenic oxygen metabolites, bioactive lipids, and chemotaxis factors for white blood cells.
Another cell factor is killer cells (populations of lymphocytes devoid of T- or B-cell characteristics):
Natural killer cells (EC cells).
Just killer cells (K-cells).
Lymphokinactivated killer cells (LAC cells).
Killer cells have a direct cytotoxic effect – the lysis of tumor and virus-infected cells, as well as regulate the production of interferons, interleukins 1 and 2 and lymphotoxin.
The first factor - the complement system. This is a system of complex proteins that are constantly present in the blood and make up about 4% of all plasma proteins. Approximately 20 whey proteins are complement components. Components of the complement system enhance the process of phagocytosis – they attract immune cells, which, in turn, absorb bacteria.
Also, complement system proteins can mark bacteria so that they are recognized by cells that can perform phagocytosis.
The second humoral factor - natural (normal) antibodies. In the blood of a healthy person, even if he has never been ill and has not been vaccinated, antibodies to many antigens are detected in low titers. Such antibodies are called natural.
Third factor - properdin. It is a complex protein consisting of five components that is involved in inflammatory responses. Together with the complement system and magnesium ions, properdin destroys the membrane of bacterial and other cells, and destroys some viruses.
The fourth factor - the lysozyme. This enzyme is produced by macrophages, epithelial cells of the mucous membranes and is contained in saliva, lacrimal fluid, nasal mucus, and blood serum. Lysozyme activates the complement system and can dissolve gram-negative bacteria.
The fifth humoral factor - interferons. This is a family of thermally stable proteins produced by cells in response to viral infection. They inhibit the replication of the virus, that is, prevent it from multiplying. Interferons also have antitumor and immunomodulatory effects.
They increase the activity of T-lymphocytes, macrophages, and natural killer cells.
Sixth factor - C-reactive protein and other proteins of the acute phase of inflammation. The presence of an increased level of C-reactive protein in the blood serum indicates an inflammatory process in the body.Also, C-reactive protein makes white blood cells more mobile.
Humoral factors also include microbicidal factors: lactoperoxidase, transferrin, lactoferrin, mucin, and others.
Acquired (specific) immunity.
Acquired immunity is also called adaptive. It is not inherited and is acquired in the course of a person's life. Acquired immunity is formed by the specific interaction of cells of the immune system with an antigen, resulting in the appearance of lymphocytes and antibodies that specifically recognize a specific antigen and neutralize its potentially harmful effects on the body.
This property is based on the action of vaccines – they introduce the immune system, for example, with the measles virus (this is an antigen), and it in response produces antibodies that protect the body when this virus invades from the natural environment.
Acquired immunity can be divided into two components:
The cell components include a lymphocyte that provides a high specificity of the immune system due to antigen-recognizing receptors. Lymphocytes are divided into:
T-lymphocytes that provide specific cellular immunity;
B-lymphocytes that implement humoral specific immunity, producing specific antibodies– immunoglobulins in response to the introduction of the stranger.
T-lymphocytes - this group of cells consists of several species, also called subpopulations. For a long time, there were only three types of them:
T-cells of memory;
T-killers: the most famous lymphocyte subpopulation. They have the ability to destroy defective cells of the body, coming into direct contact with them. They are also called cytotoxic lymphocytes.
T-killers that strictly exercise immune surveillance react aggressively to foreign protein. They cause the reaction of rejection of the graft during organ transplantation. For this reason, when a person is transplanted any organ, they are given special medications for a while, which reduce the activity of the immune system.
Otherwise, any such operation would result in the rejection of a new organ or tissue, perhaps even the death of the patient to whom such an intervention is performed.
The mechanism of these cells is interesting. With their appendages, T-killers touch an object, then break contact with it and go about their business. The cell that was touched by the lymphocyte, after some time, dies...
The fact is that during their death kiss T-killers leave particles of their membrane on the surface of the cell they destroy. In places of contact, the particles corrode the surface of the object of attack. As a result, a through hole is actually formed in the doomed cell.
It loses potassium ions, sodium ions and water enter it - as the cell barrier is broken, its internal environment begins to communicate directly with the external one. As a result, the cell is inflated by water that has entered it. It dies, and then phagocytes approach it and devour its remains.
T-helpers: the task of helpers is also quite obvious at first glance. These are helper cells. And who or what do they help? They stimulate the immune response: under their influence, cytotoxic lymphocytes (T-killers) strengthen their work.
Helpers also transmit information about the presence of a foreign protein in the body to B-lymphocytes, which secrete protective antibodies against them. Finally, helpers have a stimulating effect on the work of phagocytes-immune cells that capture and digest solid particles.
T-suppressors: if t-lymphocytes helpers enhance the immune response, then suppressors, on the contrary, suppress. At the same time, these cells do not sabotage immune processes and do not harm our health. They simply regulate the strength of the immune response, which allows the immune system to respond with moderation and moderate force to stimuli.
T-cells of memory: having Coped with the next threat, the lymphocytes remember it. In the human body, special clones of cells are formed, which store these memories. Each clone carries information about a specific type of threat.
If an aggressor that the immune system has already encountered enters the body, the corresponding clone multiplies and quickly forms a secondary immune response.
Lymphocytes are amplifiers.
After the aggressor has entered the body, there is an increased content of lymphocytes in the blood and tissues. Their number increases literally within a few hours and can increase more than twice (the body has a certain supply of them).
In the spleen and thymus live mature, full-fledged lymphocytes. Their difference from the rest is only that they did not decide to which type of lymphocytes they belong. These are amplifying cells, and if necessary, they participate in a lightning increase in the number of t-lymphocytes in demand.
B-lymphocytes produce special antibodies to various antigens, which implement the main function of humoral immunity.
Antibodies are immunoglobulins (specific protein molecules). They are designated as Ig. There are five classes of antibodies: IgG; IgA; IgM; IgD; IgE.
The specificity of antibodies is so diverse that they can bind almost any foreign protein, even synthetic, not found in nature. B-lymphocytes are also carriers of immunological memory, permanently storing dangerous antigens for the body.
Molecules involved in the immune response Molecular (humoral) component of the immune system is represented by antibodies and various soluble factors produced by cells of the immune system.
Immunoglobulins: Immunoglobulins are antibodies that are protein molecules produced by B-lymphocytes after their interaction with an antigen and react specifically with it.
There are five main classes of immune globulins: IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgD.
IgG: the main serum immunoglobulin that neutralizes both bacterial and non-bacterial toxins. It implements the reaction of cellular immunity.
IgM: has antibacterial activity, is an important protection factor in sepsis (blood poisoning), destroys aged red blood cells. The level of IDM increases in perinatal (intrauterine) infections, infectious blood diseases, acute hepatitis, primary liver cirrhosis.
IgA is represented by two factions:
IgA have the following biological properties:
they bind living bacteria and viruses, block their adhesion to the surface of the cells of the mucous membranes and prevent their penetration into the internal environment of the body;
they protect against the destructive action of autoantibodies containing cross-antigenic structures with mucosal tissues.
The content of secretory IgA is an important indicator of local immunity, and the concentration of serum IgA increases in intrauterine infections, respiratory diseases, and intestinal tract in the acute phase.
IgE: causes allergic reactions of immediate type. When an allergen enters the body, the IDE immediately moves to the histamine-producing cells (basophils and mast cells) and destroys them, releasing histamine and other biologically active substances that cause mucus production, spasm of smooth muscles, which ensures the activity of protective mechanisms.
IgE antibodies are also involved in the fight against parasitic infections.
In some allergic diseases and worm infestations, the concentration of IDE increases in the blood serum tenfold.
Cytokines: Cytokines are small protein molecules that have an informational function. The cytokine is released to the surface of cell A and, interacting with the receptor located next to cell B, transmits a signal that triggers further reactions in the cell.
Currently, there are more than thirty types of cytokines known. These include:
According to the mechanism of action, cytokines are divided into the following groups:
inflammatory – providing mobilization of the inflammatory response;
anti-inflammatory – limiting the development of inflammation;
regulators of cellular and humoral immunity (natural or specific) that have their own effector functions, that is, causing a particular immune response (for example, antiviral or cytotoxic).
The main producers of cytokines are lymphocytes, which can also be synthesized by macrophages and other tissue immunocompetent cells.
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