Coronavirus infection is caused by RNA genomic viruses of the genus Coronavirus. The coronavirus is surrounded by a supercapsid, which is riddled with sparsely located spines that have the structure of thin necks and spherical heads located on them, which in appearance resembles a crown.
Respiratory and intestinal coronaviruses are pathogenic for humans. The most common type of respiratory disease is usually diagnosed as an acute respiratory viral infection.
Viruses are unstable in external environment. They instantly die at a temperature above 56 degrees, are destroyed by the action of chloroform, formalin, ethyl alcohol or ether. Coronavirus tolerates freezing well.
For most coronavirus infections, the incubation period is limited to 2-3 days. However, for the Covid-2019 coronavirus, this period can range from 1 to 14 days (an average of 10 days).
During this period, a person can infect others. The disease occurs, most often, as a common flu, parainfluenza or any other acute respiratory infection with all their characteristic signs.
This is the name of a family that includes, as of January 2020, 40 species of RNA-containing viruses United in two subfamilies that affect humans and animals.
These viruses are similar to a ball with spiked processes, somewhat resembling a crown.
These processes help the virus penetrate the cell membrane by mimicking the molecules that the cell's receptors respond to. When a cell receptor captures a fake molecule from the "crown", it is pushed by the virus into the cell and the RNA of the virus enters the cell after it.
The most famous representatives:
SARS-CoV virus, the causative agent of SARS that scared everyone in 2002. A total of 8,273 people fell ill and 775 died. That is, the mortality rate was 9.6%. The source of the infection is thought to have been bats that carried the viruses to palm civets, Chinese badgers and raccoon dogs sold for food in markets in China's Guangdong province.
People who butchered or ate these animals became infected and spread the virus, passing it from person to person. After the ban on the sale and consumption of animal vectors, the outbreak died down, and new cases of SARS have not been recorded for a long time.
Mers-CoV virus, the causative agent of middle East respiratory syndrome. From 2012 to 2019, who received notifications of a total of 2.5 thousand confirmed cases of infection, of which 851 were fatal (34% fatality rate). In total, cases of middle East syndrome have been identified in 27 countries, but approximately 80% of cases are in Saudi Arabia.
The virus that causes middle East syndrome is transmitted to humans primarily from infected single-humped DROMEDARY camels, but human-to-human transmission is also possible.
SARS-CoV-2 virus responsible for the 2020 pandemic. While the mortality rate is kept at 3.4%.
In general, coronaviruses cause diseases of mammals (cats, dogs, pigs, cattle) and birds. Until recently, four types of coronavirus were known in humans (229E, NL63, OC43 and HKU1), infection of which usually occurs in a mild or completely unnoticeable form, and two more dangerous ones: SARS and MERS.
For the first time, human coronavirus was isolated in 1965 from patients with SARS. Until 2002, they were almost unknown to the General public, and only when the outbreak of SARS (another name: severe acute respiratory syndrome), the whole world has learned about these viruses. The disease was caused by the SARS-CoV virus.
The second time coronaviruses were mentioned 10 years later, when THE mers-CoV virus became the causative agent of middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), the first cases of which were reported in 2012. Since this virus is not transmitted from person to person, but only from camel to person, individual cases of this disease are recorded from time to time.
For the third time, coronaviruses were mentioned when an outbreak of pneumonia caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus began in China. It soon spread to other countries. Who has given this virus the official name SARS-CoV-2, and the disease COVID-2019.
CO is a coronavirus, VI is a virus and D stands for disease. The source of coronavirus infections can be a sick person or animals.
Possible transmission mechanisms:
Symptoms of Coronavirus.
The incidence increases in winter and early spring. In the structure of patients hospitalized with various viral infections, coronavirus infection is on average 12%. Immunity after the disease is short-lived, as a rule, does not protect against re-infection.
At the same time, you should know that specific antibodies to various coronaviruses were detected in 80% of people. That is, these people suffer from one of these infections or were its carrier.
Coronaviruses affect the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract, respectively, viruses are also released by the respiratory and digestive systems and airborne, contact and food/water transmission routes are possible.
But, judging by the fact that the clinic of the current epidemic is dominated by pneumonia, the airborne and contact pathways predominate here.
Data differ on the incubation period of the current disease. They mostly talk about the period from 2 to 14 days. In addition, there is evidence that the immune system may not be stable, and a recovered person with negative tests may get sick again.
In humans, the disease may present with acute respiratory symptoms, pneumonia, and gastroenteritis. Children may have bronchitis and pneumonia. However, the current coronavirus almost does not affect children, of all cases, children and adolescents make up 1%.
The RO index for a new virus, i.e. the number of people that can infect one person if no one is immune to infection, is 1,5-6,5.
Approximately 25% of cases are severe. However, only a third of those infected have clinical symptoms, that is, two-thirds of those infected with the virus do not feel this in any way and feel healthy. However, they are carriers and can infect other people.
The percentage of growth of people affected by the virus is affected by the fact that with age, a person has more and more chronic diseases, so it is more difficult for the body to cope with the infection.
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