Stroke is one of the most common diseases of the brain in adulthood and old age that occurs suddenly and often leads to severe disability or death of the patient.
Other disease name of "acute cerebrovascular accident" or older "apoplexy", "stroke". Distinguish between ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. And in that and in other case there is the death of part of the brain that has krovosnabjaemah affected vessel.
Ischemia is a decreased blood supply and, accordingly, oxygen deficiency in certain tissues of the body. Ischemic stroke occurs when, for various reasons is sharply restricted or stopped blood flow to the area of the brain.
Approximately 90-95 % of all cases ischemic stroke occurs because of atherosclerosis of the carotid, vertebral arteries and cerebral vessels. The destruction of these vessels can occur due to diabetes mellitus, hypertension or with cardiac rhythm disorders, when cut off the blood clot obstructs the cerebral vessel.
Less common ischemic disorders of cerebral circulation occur in diseases of the blood (thrombosis, erythremia, leukemia, etc.), in various diseases the actual blood vessels – vasculitis, in certain immunological disorders, and women sometimes when taking oral contraceptives and in hormone replacement therapy, especially in combination with other risk factors.
Atherosclerosis is one of the most frequent vascular diseases of the brain. As a rule, it develops in adulthood and old age. The main risk factors of atherosclerosis is known to is hypertension, diabetes, increased blood level of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein, Smoking, which also causes persistent vascular spasm.
At atherosclerosis on the vessel walls there are plaques that gradually lead to a narrowing of the lumen of the vessel or to a complete blockage. Significant is the narrowing of the lumen of the vessel up to 70 % or more. But even if the narrowing is not so great, can separate part of the plaque or a blood clot and block the vessel.
Hemorrhagic stroke is a result of penetration of blood from blood vessels into surrounding tissue of the brain.
Often, up to 60 % of cases, hemorrhagic stroke becomes a complication of hypertonic illness on the background of atherosclerosis. Hemorrhage occurs due to rupture of modified artery, and the bleeding can last from several minutes to several hours.
Another frequent cause of intracerebral hemorrhage – a rupture of the so-called arteriovenous malformation, or otherwise, saccular aneurysm, which is a feature of the structure of vessels and to the occurrence of hemorrhage may not display any signs.
Less bleeding in the brain can be caused by blood diseases.
In alcoholism, when disturbed liver function and mechanisms of blood coagulation may also occur with massive intracerebral hemorrhage.
In the case of the use of certain drugs, such as cocaine, amphetamines, disturbed structure of the blood vessels, and blood can seep into surrounding brain tissue, seeping right through the wall of the vessel.
As a rule, hemorrhagic stroke is much harder coronary, and the prognosis is more serious.
Stroke typical symptoms.
In typical cases, to assume the stroke is not too difficult. If your family member complains of weakness in the limbs, you need to ask him to raise both arms up, one hand rises easily, and the second may or may not climb, or climb hard.
One of the most common signs of stroke – the occurrence of facial asymmetry: if you ask the patient to smile, it immediately becomes noticeable asymmetry of the smile: one corner of the mouth is lower than the other, there is a significant flattening of the nasolabial folds with one hand.
With stroke often have speech disorders. Sometimes it is so obvious that doubts that there was something unusual occurs. To identify the less obvious violations can be speech asking the patient to pronounce some words or a phrase, such as "three hundred and thirty-third artillery brigade". As a rule, it will become noticeable that the articulation has changed.
Sometimes the signs of a stroke are mild, increase gradually, and the sick man even says "he's all right."
Peculiarities of stroke in women.
Women at higher risk for stroke, recovering longer and more frequently die from its consequences.
Smoking is harmful. And women to smoke is more harmful. The stronger Smoking increases the risk of stroke in women than in men. In addition, women smokers risk of stroke is increased with use of hormonal contraceptives (especially over the age of 30 years) and hormone replacement therapy, used in climacteric disorders.
However, only 1/3 of women who participated in the sampling survey, could name more than two primary signs of a stroke.
In addition to the well-known symptoms of stroke: sudden numbness or weakness on one or both sides of the face, hands (hands) or feet (foot), difficulty speaking, blurry vision in one or both eyes, sudden severe headaches or dizziness are a number of less common signs reported by women who have had the condition.
The typical symptoms women stroke:
attack of severe pain in the limb;
a sudden attack of hiccups;
attack severe nausea or pain in the abdomen;
brief loss of consciousness;
sharp pain in the chest;
suddenly increasing heart rate;
Strokes in children.
It is considered that a stroke often happens in people of Mature age. However, in recent times many of the disease for different reasons "younger". Stroke, unfortunately, is no exception.
Increasingly, he found not only among young people but even children. Number of strokes and in children and adults is steadily increasing.
In childhood the cerebral vessels more elastic age, the outflow of blood from the cranial cavity is easier than that of adults, the conditions of the cerebral circulation in children is more favorable, therefore, strokes in children occur much less frequently than in adults, but in recent years, the number of strokes in children is increasing.
heart disease (congenital malformations of the heart, cardiomyopathy, bacterial endocarditis);
acute infectious and viral diseases of the brain (measles, herpes, postgrippoznyh encephalitis);
genetic diseases such as disease, moyamoya (a rare damage that affects the arteries of the brain, accompanied by their narrowing);
In many cases, stroke in children occurs due to abnormal congenital features of the structure of cerebral vessels (aplasia of the main arteries of the head and neck, which deliver blood to the brain; arterial-venous malformation, arterial aneurysm).
Stroke prevention is many times more effective treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to take all measures to prevent this disease. Help us in this knowledge of the symptoms that may precede the development of stroke, and diseases that are frequently complicated by stroke.
So, the main risk factors of stroke are:
previous heart attacks and strokes;
In some cases, ischemic stroke may be preceded by so-called transient ischemic stroke, or transient ischemic attack. This condition similar to a stroke but underwent complete inverse dynamics within 24 hours.
Weakness or clumsiness in the arm or leg;
Numbness of half lips, half of the tongue, of a hand;
Loss of vision, sudden dizziness, double vision;
Instability when walking.
The appearance of these symptoms is the reason for the emergency doctor, who, evaluating their significance, will prescribe treatment that sometimes prevent the development of stroke. These symptoms do not necessarily appear all together, only one of them. The main thing you need to pay attention to the suddenness of their appearance.
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