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Diabetes mellitus is a complex systemic disease, which is caused by an absolute or relative deficiency of the hormone insulin. Because of this, the body develops a violation of carbohydrate metabolism, in particular - is inhibited glucose utilization tissues.
The first sign of diabetes is elevated blood glucose (hyperglycemia), in consequence of which it is released in the urine (glycosuria). Later, there is an infringement of the exchange of fat, protein, water and salt balance.
So there is a formation of a powerful loop hormonal and metabolic (metabolic) changes that lead, ultimately, to the late complications of diabetes:
This makes diabetes acute medical and social problem that requires urgent solution.
Types of diabetes.
Diabetes - an extremely heterogeneous disease. Sometimes, it is only a manifestation of the basic forms of the disease. This is symptomatic diabetes that accompanies defeat endocrine glands: thyroid, pancreas, adrenal, pituitary.
This form of diabetes may be caused, also taking certain medications. Upon successful treatment of the primary forms of the disease disappear, and clinical manifestations of diabetes.
Diabetes is divided into two main types: insulin-dependent (I type), previously known as juvenile and non-insulin dependent (II type) or - adult diabetes.
Type I diabetes is most often ill people under the age of 30 years. One of the causes of Type I diabetes is a virus in the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas which produce insulin.
Diagnosed diabetes is preceded, as well, viral diseases like mumps (mumps), rubella, hepatitis. By hypothesis, the scientists viruses infect beta cells of the pancreas in only those people who have a family history of diabetes.
Many patients with type I diabetes is an autoimmune disease. It is based on a defect of the immune system. Using newly developed methods for determining specific proteins in the blood - antigens, it is possible to establish the existence risk of developing diabetes, caused by disorders of the immune system of the body.
The majority of patients (about 85%) suffer from insulin-independent (II type) diabetes. Of these, about 15% have normal body weight and the remaining obese. Obesity and diabetes are almost always go hand in hand.
Causes of diabetes.
Causes of diabetes type I and II - are fundamentally different. Patients who suffer from diabetes type I, due to viral infection or autoimmune aggression decay beta cells producing insulin. For this reason, developing its deficit with all the dramatic consequences.
Patients with type II diabetes, the beta cells produce increased amounts of insulin, but the tissue loses its property to perceive a specific signal. When diabetes is combined with adiposity main cause insensitivity to insulin is that the adipose tissue, as a kind of screen, blocks the effects of insulin.
To break through the blockade of beta-cells begin to work with the increased load, which ultimately leads to their depletion. The relative failure becomes absolute.
However, it is important to emphasize that non-insulin dependent diabetes does not move while in insulin-dependent.
People suffering from diabetes type II, having a normal body weight, a cause of the disease is the lack of local signal insulin receptors on the cell surface.
But whatever the cause of diabetes, the body slows down the conversion of sugar from food and contained in the blood, animal starch, glycogen, which is stored in the liver and muscles.
Increased blood sugar is accompanied by increased excretion in the urine. Isolation of large amounts of body fluids leads to dehydration of tissues and patients arise thirst. Instead of relying on the normal 1.5-2 liters of fluid a day they drink up to 8-10 liters. Accordingly, this increases the amount of urine. Develops a vicious circle.
With increased thirst increases and general weakness appear itching, dryness of the mouth. With the development of diabetes are violated not only carbohydrate but also fat, and protein metabolism. The result is reduced resistance to many, including infectious diseases.
Insulin deficiency or impaired perception of his cells not only slows the conversion of sugar into glycogen, but also burn glucose in tissues. In consequence of that, the body, as the energy of the material, we have to use fat.
Occurs emission intensity of fatty acids from fat depots and their active cleavage. This leads to an accumulation in the blood and tissues of ketone bodies, IBAs are acetone, acetoacetic and beta-hydroxybutyric acid. Elevated levels of ketone bodies in the blood contributes to poisoning of the body, and most importantly - the central nervous system.
It contributes to the development of severe complications of diabetes - diabetic coma. Patients violated vital functions: circulation and respiration, and, if time is not taken, it may die.
The main goal in the treatment of a patient by any form of diabetes is to lower blood sugar levels, normalization, if possible, all types of metabolism in the body, preventing the development of serious complications.
Facilities for the treatment of diabetes.
Facilities for treatment of diabetes - are different (depending on the type of disease). Suffering from insulin-dependent (I type) diabetes need insulin injections. Patients type II diabetes prescribed hypoglycemic agents; sometimes possible to normalize blood sugar - only one diet.
Diet therapy (diet for diabetes) is an important element in the treatment of patients with diabetes, regardless of the clinical form. Each patient, taking into account the mass of the body, age, sex, physical activity should be very carefully (strongly) to calculate calorie diet, the content of carbohydrates, protein and fat, trace elements and vitamins.
Beneficial effects on the patients diebetom has a moderate (individual) exercise. During exercise enhanced oxidation occurs in the muscle tissue of glucose coming from the blood.
It helps to reduce blood sugar. That's why diabetes at any age (optional) require physical exertion.
Expect it, you must be a set of exercises with the doctor.